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History of Hyderabad City Police

POLICE SYSTEM DURING NIZAM PERIOD
The erstwhile State of Nizam comprised areas covered of the present Telangana of AP State, Bidar, Raichur and Gulburga, districts of present Karnataka State and Osmanabad. Bheed, Nanded, Latur, Aurangabad and Parbhani districts of the present Maharashtra State. Hyderabad was the Capital of Nizam. As per the available records, the Police Commissionerate system existed way back from the year 1847. The Nizam of Hyderabad used to appoint the Commissioners of Police who were officers of the Hyderabad Civil Service and they used to function during his pleasure. They were answerable to the Nizam directly on various matters of policing in Hyderabad city. However as far as administrative matters were concerned the Commissioner of Police used to correspond with the Home Department directly. The commissioner of Police was popularly called as “KOTWAL” and was responsible for maintenance of law and order, prevention of detection of crime etc. The correspondence used to be only in Urdu. Kotwal enjoying a high position and look upon with great respect of fear had always been appointed from an early period and he had under him a public force composed of various nationalities and a number of detectives.
The “Kotwal” combined in his office not only the powers and privileges of the police head, but also was in enjoyment of certain judicial and civil powers. He had direct access to the king and had his ears. He was the chief adviser to the monarch in all police matters. He was primarily responsible for the maintenance of law and order, for the prevention and control of crime, and prosecution of criminals. He occupied a unique position not only in the administration of criminal justice but also a very honourable place in the king’s “Durbars”. He received the “Roznamachas” (Daily reports) from the Thanedars “about the happening in the city, kept a watch on the British Residency and maintained a number of paid informers. The “Kotwal-e-Balda” was both respected and feared by the general Public. The last of such powerful “Kotwals” was Raja Bahadur Venkatrama Reddy during the reign of Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan, Nizam-VII. He even resolved major litigations between Gadwal and Wanaparthi “samasthans” through negotiatios. In the big “Samasthans”, policing was being done by the big feudal lords, who owned vast chunks of land, and organized their respective police forces and a separate judicial service.
The Head of the “Thana” (Police Station) came to be called “Amin” The rank equivalent to inspector was known as “Sardar Amin”. The Assistant Commissioner of Police and the Deputy Commissioner were called “Madadgar Kotwal” and “Naib Kotwal” respectively. The entire city police force had distinctive uniforms and badges of rank. At the “Thana” level there was a “Jemadar” (General Duty Head Constable) and a Mohriri (Writer Head Constable). The Constabulary was called Barkandaz in the beginning and later called “Jawan”. He was getting Rs. 6-00 in 1902 A.D. as pay and two annas per day was his daily allowance, whenever he had to travel outside Hyderabad City.
The Judicial system prevailing in the city comprised of the Diwani Adalatas (Civil Courts) and Faujdari Adalats i.e Criminal Courts, Organised in a hierarchical pettem, having both the original and appellate jurisdiction. The lowest combined criminal and civil courts under the Munsif Magistrate with 1st Class powers of trial at the original level at all taluk head quarters.
The prosecuting agency consisted of Police functionaries of inspectors rank and so far as the city was concerned. They were under Naib Kotwal Seghal Jaraim i.e. Dy. Commissioner of Police Crime. The strength of city police in the early years of this century was hardly a few thousands, quite commensurate with the limited needs of the populations of Hyderabad, which was barely 2.5 lakhs, enclosed within an impregnable fort-wall running round the city. There were thirteen huge gates and as many windows which used to be closed by the Police Armed guards from dust to dawn, by an order of the city Police Commissioner. This system ensures automatic “Nakabandi” and no burglar or thief having operated in the city could dare leave the precincts of the city without being caught and interrogated. The city police budget in 1906 was a meager few lakhs. Except for Police Station “Thana and outpost “Naka” buildings, of which there was a network, there were few Administrative Police Buildings. The Present Commissioner office “Kotwal Balda” which is more than hundred years old is situated in “Purana Haveli” locality in the heart of the old city. There were no motor vehicles, wireless equipments and telephone facility. But there are many records maintained in Urdu at the P.S. level, a few obsolete fire arms and hand-cuffs and leg-lrons. The concept of respecting the rights of the individual was not at all there and criminals were dealt with harshly to say the least. Surveillance over criminals was effective and “Goondas” and rowdies were kept under check Mostly, religious processions and assemblies were in evidence those days and hardly labour or student troubles. Strikes by Government employees were unheard of and hardly any forms of protests by political parties were noticed.
In 1271 Fasll, the total police under the control of the kotwal composed, as it was, of Arabs, Sikhs, Bharkandazes and Harkaras numbered 1524 foot men and 136 mounted and cost Rs. 82,364/- for its maintenance.
In 1294 Fasll, a Detective police force was inaugurated. The city police had three superior officers, 2 Muhatamims, 10 Sadar Amins, 27 Amins, 3 Naib Amins, 49 Sowars, 2830 Constables of all grades, 128 Arabs and 64 miscellaneous men. The strength of the city police rose to 3434 by the year 1337 Fasli. Cases of corruption were very rare. Among all the commissioner of Police who served during the Nizam period. Raja Bahadur Venkatram Reddy who worked for nearly 14 years created a history in the city for his outstanding police administration and he commanded a great respect among the public.

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HISTORY OF THE OLD CP OFFICE BUILDING
The present building, where the Commissioner of Police, office is situated was donated by Sir Salarjung Prime Minister of Hyderabad.
RE - ORGANISATION OF HYDERABAD CITY IN 1955

A scheme for the re-organisation of the City Police on the lines of Madras City Police was sanctioned by the Government of Hyderabad with effect from 15-07-1955 in so far as it related to the bifurcation of the duties into Law and Order and Crime and the extension of the City Police jurisdiction to the Muncipal limits. Transfer of certain areas from Hyderabad Dist and the Railway Police to the City Police as proposed in the re-organisation was effected w.e.f. July 15 1955

SALIENT FEATURES
Prior to the reorganization, the circle was the unit for administrative purposes and after the deputation of the sanctioned strength to the police stations of the Circle, the surplus staff / was kept at the Circle Inspectors office. The Circles inspector arranged for bandobust and night patrolling duties with these men. This was done away with and the men at the Circle inspector’s command were distributed amongst the Police stations. According to the reorganization scheme, each Police Stations was to be provided with a sanctioned strength for Law.
The State of Andhra Pradesh was formed on 01-11-1956 with Capital at Kurnool. Later the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. Consequent on the formation of Andhra Pradesh State, the conditions in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad have under gone a change and the problems of Law and order, Crime, Traffic and the Special Branch in the city have become more numerous and difficult, which led for re-organisation. The Hyderabad City Police was reorganized in the year 1957 vide G.O.Ms.No.1620 Home (Pol-B) Department date 11-10-1957.Subsequntly , state of Andhra Pradesh bifurcated into two states i.e Telangana  and Residual Andhra Pradesh w.e.f 02.06.2014 , Hyderabad city as Common Capital Area for both states.
Accordingly the City was divided into 4 AcsP Division, 12-Circles and 34 Police Stations under the supervision of DCP., Law & Order.
The ACP L&O will deal with both L&O and Crime work. The L&O S.I. will have administrative control over the P.S.and he is incharge of L&O duties. The crime S.I.will be the incharge of Crime work of the P.S.
The other units like Hqtrs. Traffic Special Branch City, headed by the D.Cs.P. will work under the Commissioner of Police.

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RE - ORGANISATION OF CITY POLICE IN 1981
Due to rapid increase in / population, industrialisation and urbanization etc. there has been a steady increase in crime. In view of the above again in the year 1981 the City Police was re-organised, vide G.O.Ms.No.341, Home (Pol.D) Department, dated: 30-05-1981.
According to which the city was divided in to 4 zones Viz: Hyderabad South, Hyderabad East, Hyderabad west & Hyderabad North, the 4 zone were again dived in to 12 divins. Each Zone is under the incharge of D.Cs.P. of the rank of supdt. Of Police for maintenance of L&O, and Crime work and keeping up the morale of the force, who are under the disciplinary and administrative control of the Commissioner of Police, having powers and functions of Addl. Dist. Magistrate.
Each Division is under the incharge of rank of Supdt. Of Police, ACP of the rank of Dy. Supdt. Of Police, who works under the control of DCP. He is responsible for prevention and detection of crimes maintenance of L&O and discipline of the force.
Each Police station is under the incharge of inspector of Police who is the S.H.O and performs all the duties and exercises all the powers of the S.H.O.
The city crimes station was renamed as “Detective Department” which works under the D.C.P.who is assisted by ACPs and inspecs.
Government have also sanctioned in the year 1992, 3 posts Jt. Commissioner of Police in the rank of D.Is.G. to assist the Commissioner of Police for effective functioning and better administration of City Police each in-charged of Co-ordination, Crimes and Security.
One Sub-Inspector of Police was to be placed incharge of Law and Order duties and another for Crime duties for each Police Station. A Divisional Detective inspector for each Division was provided for. In order to achieve this functional division it was proposed in the scheme to increases the number of posts of Sub-Inspectors and Head Constables and decrease the number of posts of Police Constables.

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  The present Commissioner of Police Sri. Anurag Sharma, IPS, is the 61st Commissioner of Hyderabad City  

  Names of the Commissioner of Police who worked in Hyderabad City right from 1847 are shown below

S. NO

NAME

DATE OF ASSUMPTION OF CHARGE

1. Sri. Md. Vazir Jamadar 8 Dec 1847
2. Sri. Fazzuddin Khan 5 Oct 1851
3. Sri. Mohammed Syeed Hussaini 5 Jan 1853
4. Sri. Nawab Ghalib –Ud-Dawlah 10 Nov 1853
5. Sri. Grand  Son of Zafar-Ud-Dawlah 9 May 1855
6. Sri. Nawab Zourawar Jung 6 June 1873
7. Sri. Inayat Hussain Khan 23 Apr 1874
8. Sri. Nawab Akber –Ul-Mulk 5 May 1884
9. Sri. Vazir Ali Nawab (Sulthan Yawar Jung) 8 Apr 1905
10. Sri. K.B. Abdul Kasim Lal Khan 25 Apr 1912
11. Sri. Mir Mubarak Ali Khan 17 Sept 1912
12. Sri. Nawab Emad Jung – II 8 Nov 1912
13. Sri. Raja Bahadur Venkat Rama Reddy 23 Mar 1920
14. Sri. Nawab Rahmat Yar Jung Bahadur 1 July 1934
15. Sri. Nawab Deen Yar Jung Bahadur 6 June 1945
16. Sri. Rusthum Ji Shapur Ji. 1 Aug 1947
17. Sri. S.N. Reddy M.A, 21 Mar 1949
18. Sri. Shiv Kumar Lal I.P.S., 1 Sept 1951
19. Sri. A. Sundaram Pillai I.P.S., 1 July 1953
20. Sri. B.L. Khadar I.P.S., 15 May 1954
21. Sri. C. Ranga  Swamy Iyengar I.P.S., 26 Sept 1954 Again 14 July 1962
22 Sri. S. Vijaya Rangam I.P.S., 19 May 1957
23 Sri. V.N. Kaliya Rao I.P.S., 14 May 1959 Again 22 May 1967
24 Sri. S.P. Satur I.P.S., 03- Apr 1961 Again 19 Feb 1963
25 Sri. Prahlad Singh I.P.S., 1 Sept 1964
26 Sri. Abdus Salam Khan I.P.S., 1 Feb 1970
27 Sri. P.V.G. Krishnama Charyulu I.P.S., 14 July 1973 Again 11 June 1976
28 Sri. K.N. Sreenivasan I.P.S., 15 Dec 1975 Again 9 July 1976
29 Sri. M.A. Shafiullah Khan I.P.S., 23 Aug 1976
30 Sri. Muni Swamy I.P.S., 28 Dec 1977
31 Sri. P.V. Pavithran I.P.S., 22 Apr 1978
32 Sri. C.G. Saldanha I.P.S., 2 May 1981
33 Sri. T. Ponnaiya I.P.S., 27 Aug 1981
34 Sri. S. Chandra Shekaran I.P.S., 10 Nov 1982
35 Sri. Vijaya Rama Rao I.P.S., 14 Apr 1983 Again 7 Apr 1989
36 Sri. R. Prabhakar Rao I.P.S., 28 Aug 1984
37 Sri. T. Surya Narayan Rao I.P.S., 05 Mar 1986
38 Sri. V. Apparao I.P.S., 15 Feb 1989 Again 25 Dec 1994
39 Sri. I. Pullanna I.P.S., 5 May 1990
40 Sri. S.V. Narasimhulu I.P.S.,  (Incharge C.P.(Addl.C.P.) 06 July 1990
41 Sri. G. Gurunath Rao I.P.S., 16 Aug 1990
42 Sri. M.V. Bhaskara Rao I.P.S., 29 Nov 1990
43 Sri. H.J. Dora I.P.S., 16 Apr 1993
44 Sri. C. Rama Swamy I.P.S., 30 Jun 1996
45 Sri. R.P. Singh 30 June 1997 Again 13 Oct 2003
46 Sri. S.R. Sukumara 12 Sept 1998
47 Sri. P. Ramulu I.P.S., 15 Dec 2000
48 Sri. M.V. Krishna Rao 25 Feb 2002
49 Sri. V. Dinesh Reddy 1 Dec 2004
50 Sri. A.K. Mohanty 30 Sept 2005
51 Sri. Balwinder Singh 12 Jan 2007
52 Sri. B. Prasada Rao, I.P.S., 20 Jan 2008
53 Sri. A.K. Khan, I.P.S., 21 Jan 2010
54 Sri. Anurag Sharma, I.P.S., 19 May 2012
55. Sri.M.Mahendar Reddy, IPS 02 June,2014

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